Sabtu, 24 Juli 2010

Asal-muasal komputer

Komputer yang kita gunakan sekarang ini tidak serta merta muncul begitu saja melainkan melalui proses yang panjang dalam evolusinya. Hal ihwal munculnya komputer mungkin dapat dilihat dalam kilas balik sejarah sejak digunakannya  Abacus – ditemukan di Babilonia (Irak) sekitar 5000 tahun yang lalu – sebagai alat perhitungan manual yang pertama, baik di lingkup sekolah maupun kalangan pedagang, saat itu. Pada periode selanjutnya telah banyak ditemukan alat-alat hitung mekanikal sejenis yaitu Pascaline yang ditemukan oleh Blaine Pascal pada tahun 1642, Arithometer oleh Charles Xavier Thomas de Colmar pada tahun 1820, Babbage’s Folly oleh Charles Babbage pada tahun 1822, dan Hollerith oleh Herman Hollerith pada tahun 1889. Kesemuanya masih berbentuk mesin sepenuhnya tanpa tenaga listrik. Ukuran dan kerumitan strukturnya berdasarkan atas tingkat pengoperasian perhitungan yang dilakukan. Barulah pada tahun 1940, era baru komputer elektrik dimulai sejak ditemukannya komputer elektrik yang menerapkan sistem aljabar Boolean.

Perkembangan teknologi komputer yang dijabarkan di bawah ini di bagi atas empat generasi berdasarkan atas komponen-komponen yang digunakannya, mulai dari yang berukuran “big” hingga mikro yang sejalan juga dengan kerumitan komponennya.

Generasi Pertama

Saat ini merupakan jamannya komputer-komputer raksasa, seperti Z3, Colossus, ENIAC, EDVAC, EDSAC, UNIVAC I. Karakteristik komputer pada zaman ini ditandai dengan ukurannya yang hampir sebesar kamar tidur, mengunakan tube vakum dengan jumlah yang amat banyak untuk menyimpan dan memproses perintah atau instruksi, memakan tenaga listrik ribuan watt, menggunakan bahasa mesin dan hanya dapat digunakan oleh orang yang terlatih. Jadi, orang awam tidak akan dapat menggunakannya sehingga komputer jenis ini belum dikomersialisasikan ke khalayak ramai. Hanya perusahaan-perusahaan besar, institusi pendidikan dan instansi pemerintah yang menggunakannya.


Generasi Kedua

Jaman ini dimulai dengan pemakaian transistor dan dioda sebagai pengganti dari tube vakum sehingga sizenya lebih kecil dibandingkan generasi pendahulunya. Penemuan lainnya yaitu penggunaan memori inti magnetik yang berfungsi menyimpan data, sehingga lebih cepat dalam pemrosesan data, serta bahasa mesin telah digantikan dengan bahasa assembly (Fortran dan Cobol) yang memudahkan dalam pengoperasiannya. Beberapa contoh komputer pada masa ini, yaitu Stretch, LARC, DEC PDP-8, IBM 1401, IBM 7090 dan IBM 7094.


Generasi Ketiga

Era baru komunikasi komputer mulai menapakkan kakinya pada momentum ini. Sebagian besar perusahaan-perusahaan besar menerapkan sistem on-line dengan menggunakan terminal jarak jauh dalam pemakaian komputer (baca : on-line). Teknologi ini tentunya didukung pula oleh kinerja komputer yang semakin baik dari segi penggunaan hardware maupun software. Penemuan baru di bidang hardware dilakoni dengan munculnya IC (Integrated Circuit) dalam komponen komputer. Karena kelebihannya dalam menyatukan berbagai komponen-komponen dalam suatu chip tunggal sehingga komputer pada saat itu ukuran komputer menjadi semakin kecil tanpa menurunkan kinerja yang dihasilkan, bahkan semakin meningkatkan kinerjanya. Pada bagian software, teknik-teknik pemrograman jamak (Multi Programming) mulai dikembangkan sehingga makin menambah koleksi berbagai bahasa pemrograman yang ada. Cray-1, UNIVAC 90/30 dan IBM 360 adalah beberapa contoh komputer pada generasi ini.


Generasi Keempat

Seiring dengan lajunya waktu perkembangan komputer sebagai alat pemrosesan data semakin meningkat pesat terutama pada generasi ini. Kecepatannya yang semakin bertambah berbanding terbalik dengan ukurannya yang semakin kecil dengan didukung oleh kemampuan memori yang lebih besar. Harganya pun semakin murah disebabkan oleh karena komponen-komponennya telah diproduksi dan dijual secara missal. Pada periode ini berbagai IC disatukan menjadi satu kesatuan membentuk komponen yang disebut dengan VLSI (Very Large Scale IC). Penggunaan perangkat lunak yang semakin mudah dan berkembang mulai diterapkan pada komputer-komputer rumahan, seperti word processing dan spreadsheet. Jaringan internet pun makin luas yang dahulunya hanya dinikmati oleh kelompok-kelompok elite kini sudah bisa digunakan juga oleh masyarakat awam. Penggunaan mikroprosessor kini tidak mutlak lagi digunakan hanya pada komputer melainkan sudah diaplikasikan pada produk-produk elektronik lainnya, seperti televisi dan microwave. Melihat perkembangan dunia komputer yang tingkat pertumbuhannya sangat tinggi mulai dari generasi awal hingga sekarang ini dapat kita prediksikan bagaimana karakteristik komputer pada generasi mendatang. Mungkin saja, komputer nantinya tidak harus terus didikte oleh manusia tetapi ia sudah dapat melakukan segala sesuatunya sendiri. Boleh dikata kemampuannya sudah menyerupai kepandaian manusia. Kemampuan seperti itu (Kecerdasan Buatan atau Artificial Intelegence) kini aktif diteliti oleh negara-negara maju seperti Jepang dan Amerika Serikat.

Penulis

Azhar Bakri H.

Sumber :

    * http://ittutor.net/forums/lofiversion/index.php/t9179.html
    * http://linux.or.id/node/982
    * http://www.freewebtown.com/ardiz/sejarah_komputer.html
    * http://www.sony-ak.com/articles/4/computer_history.php
    * Nugroho, E. 1991. Pengenalan Komputer. Penerbit Andi Offset, Yogyakarta.

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